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Considering only the blue curve from the graph for pH 7.4 in the figure

Question Considering only the blue curve from the graph for pH 7.4 in the figure above, which of the following statements about oxygen (O2) binding to haemoglobin is INCORRECT? [2 marks] A More than half of the O2 loaded on haemoglobin will additionally become available during intense exercise if the O2 partial pressure decreases to about 15 mmHg B The reason for the sigmoidal shape of the O2 saturation curve is that the affinity of binding of O2 to haemoglobin decreases as more oxygen is bound C Approximately 25% of the O2 bound to haemoglobin is released in tissues when you are at rest D The change in binding affinity as O2 loading of haemoglobin occurs is an example of positive cooperativity E O2 binding to haemoglobin causes conformational changes to the haemoglobin molecule Which of the following is the CORRECT association of the curve along with the explanation? A green curve – effect of increased CO2 levels, such as occur during exercise, on the haemoglobin O2 saturation curve B green curve – effect of decreased plasma pH levels, as may occur in disease, on the haemoglobin O2 saturation curve C red curve – the haemoglobin O2 saturation curve for foetal haemoglobin, compared with the blue curve for adult haemoglobin D red curve – effect of increased CO2 levels, such as occur during exercise, on the haemoglobin O2 saturation curve E red curve – effect of decreased CO2 levels, such as occur during hyperventilation, on the haemoglobin O2 saturation curve

A Review of Some Important Breathing and Circulating Facts

A) the

Question A Review of Some Important Breathing and Circulating Facts

A) the respiratory tract “conditions” the inhaled air, as long as we breathe properly ie through our noseØ the cavities (nasal pharynx and oral pharynx) and tubes (trachea, bronchus, and bronchioles) are Ø lined with mucus secreting ______ cells, which are situated between ________ epithelial cells. Ø 1st the mucus traps _____and __________, while 2nd the cilia sweep it either up and out the nose Ø or mouth OR down the esophagus and into the stomach, where the ______ acid, produced by the Ø ______ glands will kill the bacteria.Ø thirdly, the respiratory tract is lined with capillaries. the 37 degree celcius blood warm the air as it passes through the passage ways Ø fourthly, as the warm air passes over the mucus, the air is moistened.Now you summarize the four ways air is “conditioned”:1 23 4What features must be common to any efficient respiratory surface? (3 features minimum) – – -B) The two types of gas exchange systems are known as an INTERNAL Gas exchange and EXTERNAL gas exchange system.I) Hypothesize which one you have and explain your reasoning.ii) Think back to grade 10, hypothesize which one an earthworm has and explain your reasoning.iii) How do each meet the 3 features of an efficient respiratory surface? Ø Repeat the process for the gas exchange system of a fish text reference p 445 and counter current video posted.C) The average number of breathes per minute for a healthy adult ranges between 14 and 20. Ø for this same healthy adult, the lung capacities average out as follows:Expiratory Reserve Volume 1000 mLTidal volume 500 mLInspiratory Reserve Volume 2500 mLVital Capacity 4000 mLnote this is an average between gendersin fact the average male vital capacity is 4800 mL and the residual capacity is 1200 mLwhile the average female vital capacity is 3200 mL and the residual capacity is 1000 mLNow you do some figuring: What is the average Total Lung Capacity for a male_____ AND for a female _______?What might decrease lung capacity? increase lung capacity?D) An effective circulatory system must have the following features; be able to explain how the human system meets these criteria (be ready to give details):1 a pump 2 a means of transporting O2 and CO2 directly to all tissues 3 a means of carrying gases 4 in close contact to an environmental source of O2E) Differentiate between an open and a closed circulatory system; give an example of each:How does your sample organism with the open circulatory system achieve the 4 criteria for an efficient circulatory system?F) How does blood carry O2 In the red blood cells, oxygen forms a loose chemical bond with ________________ . The molecule formed is called _______________.Unfortunately oxygen is not the only chemical which can bond with hemoglobin, CO a.k.a ____________ ____________ bonds 200x more readily to ______________than oxygen, thus preventing transportation of oxygen.Early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include:headaches, dizziness, weakness and nausea. G) How does blood carry waste CO2? consider the following equation:CO2 H2O ↔H2CO3 ↔HCO3- H Ø the majority of carbon dioxide to be transported is in the form of _______________(formed by a reaction with water)Ø a small portion combines with __________________Ø a very small portion is carried as _____________gas molecules within the bloodThis equation tell you that if a great deal of carbon dioxide needs to be carried blood will become increasingly acidic, recall from grade ten the concentration of H is what determines pH. And you already learned that acid, ___________ _________and ___________ all increase heart rate and thereby circulation rate.H) Lets consider heart contractions:The stage during which the ventricles are contracting is called ______________. The period during which the heart is relaxed is called ______________.By using a stethoscope, you can hear the sounds the heart makes…The first (loud sound) called “lub” is produced bythe closing of __________________________________and the opening of the ____________________________The second sound “dub” is produced by the closing ofand the opening of the ___________________________I) Blood pressure:When the ventricles contract, blood is forced out into arteries, exerting pressure on the arteriole walls. This pressure is converted into a unit called mm Hg (millimeters of_____________). The high pressure reading is an average of _________ mm ______for young adults. When the ventricles relax, the elastic walls of the arteries offer the least resistance, and the pressure drops to an average of ____ mm ___. ie written as _______mm ____. As you age the heart must work harder thus the __________(top) number increases. It can also increase as a result of stress, and hardening of the arteries or high cholesterol deposits

1) What is molecular clock and how do you use molecular clock to estimate

Question 1) What is molecular clock and how do you use molecular clock to estimate evolutionary time and constructing phylogenies?2) How is molecular clock calibrated? 3) Why do you think that often times the gens that are used to make phylogenies are genes that are highly conserved that have a slow mutation rate? Why would it be difficult for genes to move at a very high rate?Please help with these questions. I need an expert! Thank you for the help!

Ovulation occurs immediately after which of the following endocrine signaling events?

BiologyQuestion Ovulation occurs immediately after which of the following endocrine signaling events? A) A surge of FSH released from the pituitary. B) A surge of estrogen released from the pituitary. C) A surge of LH released from the pituitary. D) A surge of FSH released from the hypothalamus.

Listed below is a sequence of substances in the cell (A, B ,C , D, E, F and G), and the enzymes

Question Listed below is a sequence of substances in the cell (A, B ,C , D, E, F and G), and the enzymes (1,2, 3, 4 and 5) needed to convert them to the next substance in the sequence. Since eachsubstance has a use in the cell, it is not immediately converted to the next substance and so eachcompound can be detected in this system.A —-1—–> B —-2—-> C —-3—-> D —-4—-> E —-5—–> F —6—>GIn order to study this multi-enzyme system, radioactively labelled substance A was added to thecell. The cell was studied in an attempt to locate the radioactive label in any of the othersubstances. In an untreated cell, adding labelled-A will result in high levels of labelled-G with low levels of labelled-B, C, D, E and F. If chemical ‘R’ is added: low levels of labeled-B; very low levels of labeled-C; high levels of labeled-D only are found. If labelled-E is then added, high levels of labelled-F and low levels of labelled-G are detected.Explain the effect of chemical ‘R’ on EACH of enzymes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Why is it important to consider carbon loss from prairie grasslands

Question Why is it important to consider carbon loss from prairie grasslands after land conversion to cornfields for ethanol when you think of sustainability?Without doing any additional research at this point, why do you think carbon is lost from prairie grassland ecosystems when they are plowed under and planted to cornfields?

1) Explain the difference between a purine and pyrimidine?
2) Explain the difference between nucleotides, nucleosomes, and centrosomes.3) Why is

Question 1) Explain the difference between a purine and pyrimidine?
2) Explain the difference between nucleotides, nucleosomes, and centrosomes.3) Why is DNA replication described as being “semi-conservative”?5) What are Okazaki fragments and why/how do they form?6) What are spindle fibers? What cell structure do they originate from? What do they connect to on the DNA? What is their role during mitosis?

QUESTION 31 ________ populations are more susceptible to genetic drift.

Question QUESTION 31 ________ populations are more susceptible to genetic drift. a. Interbreeding b. Small c. Large1 points QUESTION 32________ utilize internal energy sources to control their body temperature. a. Endotherms b. Ectotherms c. Poikilotherms1 points QUESTION 33Due to the impact of heat on ________, it is essential for organisms to have some form of thermoregulation. a. nucleic acids b. proteins c. fats1 points QUESTION 34________ muscle is the only type of muscle that is under voluntary control. a. Smooth b. Cardiac c. Skeletal1 points QUESTION 35________ fibers provide strength to connective tissues. a. Collagen b. Elastic c. Reticular1 points QUESTION 36Fertilization in humans occurs in the ________. a. vagina b. Fallopian tubes c. ovaries1 points QUESTION 37________ tissue allows plants to transport moisture and nutrients. a. Nonvascular b. Both vascular and nonvascular c. Vascular1 points QUESTION 38________ is the use of color patterns to warn off predators. a. Batesian mimicry b. Camouflage c. Aposematic coloration1 points QUESTION 39Amoebas ingest food through ________. a. pinocytosis b. phagocytosis c. exocytosis1 points QUESTION 40In angiosperms, the female gametophyte is ________. a. on a separate structure from the male b. enclosed in an ovule c. exposed in the flower1 points 1 points QUESTION 42Human population worldwide is currently experiencing ________ growth. a. logarithmic b. logistic c. exponential1 points QUESTION 43The red algae are common in tropical water, and ________. a. typically exist as colonial organisms b. typically exist as large, multinucleate, single cells c. are typically called “seaweeds”1 points QUESTION 44A key adaptation that allowed plants to inhabit the many terrestrial biome is ________. a. sporopollenin b. vascular tissue c. seeds1 points QUESTION 45________ ecology attempts to solve real world problems, including conservation efforts. a. Applied b. Restoration c. Microbial1 points QUESTION 46The ________ gland detects low calcium levels in the body. a. thyroid b. parathyroid c. pancreas1 points QUESTION 47Phylogenetic trees ________. a. confirm working hypotheses about species relationships b. show the evolutionary connections among organisms c. identify specific changes leading to new species1 points QUESTION 48Taste and smell are both ________ senses. a. mechanoreception b. thermoreception c. chemoreception1 points QUESTION 49Keystone species ________. a. have the greatest influence on community structure b. are key to maintaining ecological community structure c. are the first to grow on new land1 points QUESTION 50Nonvascular plants require ________ for reproduction. a. nonmotile gametes b. water c. wind1 points QUESTION 51Modern evidence indicates that ________ descended directly from dinosaurs. a. reptiles b. mammals c. birds1 points QUESTION 52Organisms that reproduce at an early age risk their own ________. a. health b. fecundity c. parental support1 points QUESTION 53Extant amphibians all have ________. a. sticky tongues for capturing prey b. moist skin for respiration c. four functional limbs1 points QUESTION 54The ________ results in the characteristic “square” shape of plant cells. a. central vacuole b. cell wall c. plasma membrane1 points QUESTION 55According to ________, increased reproductive success is based on traits favored by a particular environment. a. natural selection b. sexual selection c. evolution1 points QUESTION 56________ in prokaryotes enables the direct exchange of genetic information between two cells. a. Conjugation b. Transduction c. Transformation1 points QUESTION 57Radially symmetrical animals have ________. a. no central axis b. a top and bottom c. a right and left side1 points QUESTION 58Asexual reproduction works best in ________. a. temperate climates b. stable environments c. stressful conditions1 points QUESTION 59Biological diversity is ________. a. constantly changing b. changed only by a major ecological event c. static1 points QUESTION 60One of the key features found in all chordates is the ________. a. vertebral column b. spinal cord c. notochord1 points QUESTION 61In order for organisms to change over generations, there must first be ________. a. genetic variation b. competition c. environmental pressure1 points QUESTION 62All chordates share four features ________. a. at some stage of development b. throughout their life cycle c. as adults1 points QUESTION 63The relationship between a termite and the protozoa that live in its gut is an example of ________. a. commensal b. mutualism c. parasitism1 points QUESTION 64Most adult ________ are sessile filter feeders that live in shallow ocean water. a. tunicates b. Pikaia c. lancelets1 points QUESTION 65The process of ________ is one way that humans can impact species evolution in target organisms. a. natural selection b. random chance c. artificial selection1 points QUESTION 66In sponges, food particles are digested by ________. a. external enzymes b. individual cells c. a digestive system1 points QUESTION 67Primary growth is due to cell division of the ________. a. apical meristem b. lateral meristem c. axillary buds1 points QUESTION 68Mother microspores ultimately give rise to ________. a. two synergids b. a tetrad c. four pollen grains1 points QUESTION 69Fungi are mostly ________. a. saprophytic b. photosynthetic c. parasitic1 points QUESTION 70Cnidarians are named for their ________, specialized stinging cells. a. cnidocytes b. barbed threads c. nematocysts

1.Why do some states require a test for antibodies against rubella for women before issuing a marriage license?

Question 1.Why do some states require a test for antibodies against rubella for women before issuing a marriage license? 2.A patient has been diagnosed as having pneumonia. Is this sufficient information to begin treatment with antimicrobial agents? Briefly discuss why or why not.3.Why might the influenza vaccine be less effective than other vaccines?

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