For this Assignment, write a 2–3 page essay that describes how society’s response to crime impacts public policy, sentencing, practices,
For this Assignment, write a 2–3 page essay that describes how society’s response to crime impacts public policy, sentencing, practices, and correctional operations. Your paper should include: An overview of the evolution of society’s views on crime and punishment The need for crime and punishment The shift in sentencing laws and impact (prisons, Get Tough On Crime, present day) An emphasis on punishment or rehabilitation currently How one’s ideas about multiculturalism and diversity impact their response to crime Use a minimum of two references, which can include the course textbook, to support your argument. Download and review the Assignment Checklist.
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Part IV Control Processes in Police Management Chapter 14 Accountability © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Learning Objectives Understand the importance of accountability.
© 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Part IV Control Processes in Police Management Chapter 14 Accountability © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Learning Objectives Understand the importance of accountability. Distinguish between internal and external accountability. Understand procedures for ensuring accountability internally, including internal affairs and codes of ethics. Develop procedures for ensuring accountability externally, including civilian review, citizen complaints, state tort and Section 1983 civil liability, accreditation, and criminal liability and the exclusionary rule. © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Accountability The requirement the subordinates be able to provide satisfactory reasons for significant deviations from organizational goals and expectations Essential when: Mistakes and misconduct occur Performance falls below expectations Outcomes differ from expectations © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Two Sources of Accountability Within the police department Internal affairs Codes of ethics Outside the police department Civilian review Citizen complaints Civil liability © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Promoting Accountability from the Inside Internal Affairs Codes of Ethics © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Internal Affairs Specialized staff unit for policing the police Some purposes of internal investigations: Investigate complaints of police misconduct Investigate police use of deadly force Evaluate policies related to police ethics and behavior Trial board: responsible for rendering judgment after hearing a case presented by internal affairs © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning A Police Officer Bill of Rights Ban on the use of polygraphs and alcohol detection devices Defined hours when an interrogation of a suspected officer may be conducted by an investigator Advance notice to an officer who is being investigated, which includes the accusation and the name and address of any complainant Accusation and trial procedures that ensure an officer’s right to counsel, cross-examination of accusers and witnesses, and established penalties Right of an accused officer to pick some members of any review panel or trial board which will sit in judgment of the officer upon completion of the investigation © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Codes of Ethics Consist of several standard elements: Legality (enforcing and upholding the law) Service (protecting and serving the public) Honesty and integrity (telling the truth, being honest in action) Loyalty (to other police officers) The Golden Rule (treating people with respect) Can be traced to the movement to professionalize policing Provides model for officer’s behavior in private life and use of force, etc. © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Promoting Accountability from the Outside Civilian review Citizen complaints Civil liability © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Types of External Review Three models: Civilian Review Model Civilian body investigates, adjudicates, and recommends punishment Civilian Input Model Vests the receipt and investigation of complaints in the hands of civilians All other functions remain the responsibility of the police departments Civilian Monitor Complaints are received by the police department and the process, from the beginning to end, is monitored by an external unit © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Civilian Review Represents an important step in promoting accountability Civilian involvement in the complaint process produces: More objective and thorough investigations A higher rate of sustained complaints and more disciplinary actions against guilty officers Greater deterrence of police misconduct Higher levels of satisfaction on the part of both individual complaints and the general public Effectiveness is unclear; most civilian review mechanisms only provide for disciplinary recommendations © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Citizen Complaints Serve as an indicator to supervisors of how well their subordinates behave on the street May be used to improve performance, enhance image, and strengthen relationships with citizens Warn supervisors when problems are brewing It is difficult to have a complaint resolved in favor of the person filing the complaint. © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Civil Liability Effects of being sued for misconduct: Drives up insurance premiums Tarnishes department’s image and negatively affect morale Instills fear and paranoia in frontline police officers Administrators can be held liable Section 1983 Allows plaintiffs to sue state officials in federal court for violations of federally protected rights Tort liability A civil wrong for which a person can recover damages A plaintiff must show that the officer owed the plaintiff a legal duty, that the officer breached that duty, and that actual damage or injury resulted Intentional torts Negligence torts © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Accreditation Standards Written directives Management decision making Preparedness Relationships with the community Accountability Liability and risk exposure Professional excellence © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Phases of Accreditation Application Self-assessment On-site assessment Commission review and decision Maintaining compliance and reaccreditation © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Other Accountability Measures Exclusionary Rule Evidence obtained in violation of the Constitution cannot be admitted in a criminal trial to prove guilt “Fruit of the poisonous tree” doctrine Criminal prosecution Statutes act as supplements to state criminal remedies Police officer can also be convicted on criminal charges at the state level
Find a recent news article on the Internet that concerns probable cause and criminal procedure. Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word summary of the
Find a recent news article on the Internet that concerns probable cause and criminal procedure. Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word summary of the article in which you analyze the requirements for search and arrest warrants, and how they relate to the right to privacy and probable cause. In addition, discuss exceptions to warrant requirements.
Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts,
Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas: Identify and discuss at least 3 different types of nongovernmental police or security forces. You may also choose to profile 3 real-life private detectives or bounty hunters by presenting a biography and history on them and their exploits. You may combine the above two tasks as long as you explore at least 3 forces or detectives in your combination. Research and discuss at least 1 example of criminal wrongdoing by a private police or security force or personnel. This example does not have to be about one that was already covered, and it does not have to be from within the United States. Where possible, your discussion of the research should include statistical data about the different types of nongovernmental police or security forces. Express your thoughts and feelings about the use of nongovernmental police and security forces. Do you have any policy recommendations for or against them?
Capital Punishment and the Death Row Inmate (Significant Case) For this assignment complete an essay detailing the significance of the case
Capital Punishment and the Death Row Inmate (Significant Case) For this assignment complete an essay detailing the significance of the case assigned (not a brief, but an essay). Include why the offender was arrested and a brief description of there journey through the criminal justice system. Most significantly, include what effects this case has had on the criminal justice system, if any. “Insanity” is a legal term, not a medical diagnosis. The term “incompetency” is also sometimes used as an alternative to “insanity.” It refers to any mental illness severe enough to affect the defendant’s ability to understand the crime he or she is committing, the trial proceedings, or the punishment for the crime of which he or she was convicted. Insanity can affect a capital case at three points. First, if the defendant / accused was insane at the time of the crime, he or she can be found not guilty by reason of insanity. In most states, the burden of proof falls on the defense to show that the defendant was insane. The jury must decide, based on testimony by psychiatric experts and other evidence presented during the trial. When the jury hands down return a verdict of not guilty by reason of insanity, the defendant / accused is committed to a mental institution. Four states (Kansas, Montana, Idaho, and Utah) do not allow a verdict of not guilty by reason of insanity. Second, if the defendant / accused is incompetent at the time of the trial and cannot understand the legal proceedings or cooperate with his or her counsel, then he or she can be found incompetent to stand trial. In most states, a judge makes this determination. If such a finding is made, the defendant / accused is sent to a mental institution to be treated until he or she regains competency. Finally, a defendant / accused who is insane as his or her execution approaches can be found incompetent to be executed. Under Ford v. Wainwright, it is unconstitutional to execute an inmate who does not understand his or her punishment or the reason for it. However, if the inmate’s competency is later restored, he or she can then be executed. Many mentally ill people do not exhibit their symptoms all the time. What do you think about the practice of giving a condemned prisoner drugs or other treatment so that he/she can reach the degree of mental health necessary to carry out a legal execution? What do you think should be done in these cases? Is this justice? 1. Need 3 full pages 2. Need to have book Book title: Corrections Today, 4th Edition ISBN number: 978-1-337-09185-5
Please define, describe, and discuss the “opium poppy” from its origin to contemporary times. Please make certain that you discuss
Please define, describe, and discuss the “opium poppy” from its origin to contemporary times. Please make certain that you discuss the cultural, medicinal, literary, and socio-economic impact that the poppy had and continues to have. Response will be between 600-750 words, cited and referenced in accordance with APA 6th Edition Publication Manual format. 2 references must be used
Due Week 4 and worth 140 points According to the text, crime has been part of the human condition since people
Due Week 4 and worth 140 points According to the text, crime has been part of the human condition since people began to live in groups. Ancient documents indicate that conduct we now call murder, theft, or robbery was identified as criminal by civilizations that existed thousands of years ago. Criminal laws regulate human conduct and tell people what they can and cannot do and, in some instances, what they must do under certain circumstances. In this assignment, you will explore different types of criminal conduct and the goals of criminal law. Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you: Determine whether or not the Ex Post Facto Clause can be used as a defense to prohibit the increase in federal minimum/mandatory sentencing guidelines after a federal defendant has committed the crime. Provide a rationale to support your position. Explain the distinction between criminal, tort, and moral wrongs. Next, support or criticize the premise that the standards set by moral laws are higher than those set by criminal law. Identify and discuss the differences between solicitation of another to commit a crime and a conspiracy to commit a crime. Next, support or criticize the use of the unilateral approach to conspiracy convictions. Identify the four (4) goals of criminal law, and discuss the manner in which these four goals effectuate the purpose of protecting the public and preventing the conviction of innocent persons. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar types of websites do not qualify as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: This course requires use of new Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details. Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow SWS or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Describe the nature and history of American criminal law. Explain the role of individuals and federal, state, and local government agencies in crime fighting and prosecution of criminal offenses. Analyze the essential legal elements of criminal conduct. Use technology and information resources to research issues in criminal law. Write clearly and concisely about criminal law using proper writing mechanics. Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric
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