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# 93.The sidereal period of a planet is defined asA)the time between two successive passages of the planet in front of

93.The sidereal period of a planet is defined asA)the time between two successive passages of the planet in front of a particular point in the sky (e.g., a star) as seen from the Sun.B)the time between two successive passages of the planet in front of a particular point in the sky (e.g., a star) as seen from the Earth.C)the time between two successive identical configurations (e.g., opposition to opposition).D)the time between two successive greatest elongations (e.g., greatest western elongation to greatest eastern elongation).

## Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that the gravitational force exerted by an object on any other object anywhere

Question Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that the gravitational force exerted by an object on any other object anywhere in the universe is given by F= gm1m2/r2 equation where G is the universal gravitational constant (= 6.67 x 10 -11 N.m 2/kg 2), m1 is mass 1, m2 is mass 2, and r is the distance between the two masses (from center to center). If both masses m1 and m2 are doubled, the gravitational force between the two masses

## Estimate the number of Solar neutrinos passing through a detector

Question Get Answer Estimate the number of Solar neutrinos passing through a detector on the Earth in one second. Assume that the detector has a surface area of 1.0 square meters and is aligned so that it faces directly towards the centre of the Sun. Assume that every neutrino travels without any change (i.e. none are absorbed or converted to a different particle). Also assume that the energy carried out of the Sun by the neutrinos is negligible

## 5.In science, if new and reliable observations disagree with a well-established theory, thenA)this shows the futility of attempting to understand

5.In science, if new and reliable observations disagree with a well-established theory, thenA)this shows the futility of attempting to understand the universe. The observations should be classified for future reference and the theory retained as the best explanation of the phenomenon.B)the observations must be discarded.C)the theory must be discarded immediately.D)the theory must be modified to account for the observations, and if this is not possible, then the theory must be discarded.

## 11.Which of the following is a critical component of the scientific method?A)The belief that a theory accepted by leading scientists

11.Which of the following is a critical component of the scientific method?A)The belief that a theory accepted by leading scientists is correctB)The rejection of new scientific results when they disagree with the presently accepted theoryC)The automatic rejection of a theory when new results disagree with its predictionsD)The testing of predictions from a scientific theory or theoretical model

## 15.The concept called “Occam’s Razor” tells us thatA)the theory that is applicable to the greatest range of phenomena is more

15.The concept called “Occam’s Razor” tells us thatA)the theory that is applicable to the greatest range of phenomena is more likely to be correct.B)when two theories describe the same phenomena equally accurately, always choose the theory with the greater complexity.C)when two theories describe the same phenomena equally accurately, always choose the simpler theory.D)the theory that describes phenomena more accurately is more likely to be correct.

## C)the focus of the ellipse that is the orbit of the planet around the Earth.D)the small circle through which the

C)the focus of the ellipse that is the orbit of the planet around the Earth.D)the small circle through which the planet moves as the center of this circle orbits the Earth.44.The epicycle, in the Greek planetary model, isA)the circle centered on the Earth about which the center of the smaller circular motion moves.B)the off-center point in the planetary system occupied by the Earth.

## 48.The deferent, in the Greek planetary model, isA)the part of the planet’s orbit when it appears to move “backward” (i.e.,

48.The deferent, in the Greek planetary model, isA)the part of the planet’s orbit when it appears to move “backward” (i.e., westward) in the sky.B)the off-center point in the planetary system occupied by the Earth.C)the small circle about which the planet moves as the center of the circle orbits the Earth.D)the circle about which each planet’s epicycle center moves.

## 52.According to the Ptolemaic model of the solar system (Guided Discovery: The Earth-centered Universe, Chapter 2, Comins and Kaufmann, Discovering

52.According to the Ptolemaic model of the solar system (Guided Discovery: The Earth-centered Universe, Chapter 2, Comins and Kaufmann, Discovering the Universe, 7th Ed.), during retrograde motion a planet would beA)at varying distances from the Earth, sometimes closer and sometimes farther awaythan the average distance.B)farther away from the Earth than average.C)closer to the Earth than average.D)always at the same distance from the Earth because the planet orbits the Earth in acircle in this model.

## 61.Copernicus used the fact that Mars can sometimes be seen high in our sky at midnight toconclude thatA)the Sun can

61.Copernicus used the fact that Mars can sometimes be seen high in our sky at midnight toconclude thatA)the Sun can come between the Earth and Mars.B)the Earth can come between Mars and the Sun.C)Mars and the Sun can never be on the same side of the Earth at the same time.D)Mars can come between the Earth and the Sun.

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